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Working with a User Space Yocto Layer


This tip has been adapted to PetaLinux using the meta-example layer available here meta-example

Installing the meta-example layer on your host

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$ git clone https://github.com/DynamicDevices/meta-example

About the meta-example layer


This example layer is providing 3 build recipes, bbexample, bbexample-rt and bbexample-lt respectively fetching the source code from a git tree, a remote tar file and a local tar file

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$ petalinux-build -c bbexample
$ petalinux-build -c bbexample-rt
$ petalinux-build -c bbexample-lt

Configuring the layer path in the PetaLinux build system

Move to your Petalinux PetaLinux project directory, add the layer path in below config option.

Code Block
cd <plnx-proj-root>
petalinux-config --> Yocto Settings --> User Layers --> (/absolute_path_to_meta_layer/meta-example) user layer 0 
													--> ()    user layer 1


Move to your Yocto project build directory, edit the conf/bblayers.conf file and add your layer path to BBLAYERS

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BBLAYERS := " \
  ${SDKBASEMETAPATH}/layers/poky/meta \
  ${SDKBASEMETAPATH}/layers/poky/meta-poky \
  /absolute_path_to_meta_layer/meta-example \
  "

Building the meta-layer example package based on a local source archive


The recipe we are going to build is https://github.com/DynamicDevices/meta-example/blob/master/recipes-example/bbexample/bbexample-lt_1.0.bb

The recipe bbexample-lt is using some variables

1. SRC_URI Space-delimited list of URIs to download source code, patches, and other files from git, local absolute path, https, ftp etc.
2. PN is the Package Name. The value of this variable is derived by BitBake from the base name of the recipe file.
3. PV is the Package Version. which is derived by BitBake from the base name of the recipe file

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# Use local tarball
SRC_URI = "file://bbexample-${PV}.tar.gz"

The recipe bbexample-lt can invoked using the following command

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$ petalinux-build -c bbexample-lt

here is the command output
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$ petalinux-build -c bbexample-lt
 
[INFO] building bbexample-lt
[INFO] sourcing bitbake
INFO: bitbake bbexample-lt
Loading cache: 100% |###############################################################################################################################################################################| ETA:  00:00:00
Loaded 2941 entries from dependency cache.
Parsing recipes: 100% |#############################################################################################################################################################################| Time: 00:00:01
Parsing of 2328 .bb files complete (2294 cached, 34 parsed). 2943 targets, 196 skipped, 0 masked, 0 errors.
NOTE: Resolving any missing task queue dependencies
NOTE: Preparing RunQueue
NOTE: Checking sstate mirror object availability (for 38 objects)
NOTE: Executing SetScene Tasks
NOTE: Executing RunQueue Tasks
NOTE: Tasks Summary: Attempted 872 tasks of which 857 didn't need to be rerun and all succeeded.
INFO: Copying Images from deploy to images
[INFO] successfully built bbexample-lt

You have now successfully built the layer but you still need to include the binary produced into the kernel root file system

Including the meta-layer example build output in the Linux root file system


There are two options in order to do so

1. Edit your project <BUILD_DIR>/conf/local.conf file for YOCTO project <plnx-proj-root>/meta-user/conf/petalinuxbsp.conf file for PETALINUX PetaLinux project and add
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IMAGE_INSTALL_append = " bbexample-lt"
2. Adding a package to an image via a .bbappend

You may wish to add specific packages to specific images, which is generally viewed as better practice. We are using core-image-minimal bitbake recipe for this tip by creating file core-image-minimal.bbappend. This .bbappend file is extending the original core-image-minimal recipe in order to include the layer build output into the Linux root file system.
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recipes-core/images/core-image-minimal.bbappend
core-image-minimal.bbappend file content
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IMAGE_INSTALL += " bbexample-lt"

Running the meta-layer example under QEMU


1. Rebuild your layer
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$ petalinux-build -c bbexample_lt -x cleansstate
2. Rebuild your kernel
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$ petalinux-build -c kernel
3. Start qemu
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$ petalinux-boot --qemu --kernel
4. Log on qemu and start the application
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root@plnx_arm:/# /usr/bin/bbexample
Hello Yocto World...
Hello World (from a shared library!)

Patching the Linux Kernel of a PetaLinux Project


1. Copy the patch to project file <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-kernel/linux/linux-xlnx directory.

2. Modify project file <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-kernel/linux/linux-xlnx_%.bbappend to use the patch file by adding the patch file name to the SRC_URI_append variable. If the variable does not exist in the file then add a new line with
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SRC_URI_append = " file://0001-linux-driver-fix.patch"
 
FILESEXTRAPATHS_prepend := "${THISDIR}/${PN}:"

3. Make sure the priority for the meta-user layer is 7 in the project file <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/conf/layer.conf .

Note: Any patches in the project will not be applied to an external source tree for the Linux kernel or u-boot. The user should apply patches to the external source tree.

How to Modify inittab or getty in a PetaLinux Project


1. Create a sysvinit directory in meta-user layer as
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$ mkdir -p <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-core/sysvinit/sysvinit-inittab
2. Create a sysvinit-inittab_%.bbappend file and your own inittab file or your inittab patch

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$ vim <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-core/sysvinit/sysvinit-inittab_%.bbappend

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SRC_URI_append = " file://inittab"
 
FILESEXTRAPATHS_prepend := "${THISDIR}/${PN}:"
Or
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SRC_URI_append = " file://inittab.patch"
 
FILESEXTRAPATHS_prepend := "${THISDIR}/${PN}:"

How to Patch the FSBL in a PetaLinux Project


Note: This method can't be used for v2016.4 PetaLinux Projects. PetaLinux tools use externalsrc methodology to fetch the source code from XSDK. Yocto does not allow patching in this externalsrc mechanism. Hence this method can't be used in Yocto.


1. Create a fsbl and files directory in meta-user layer as
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$ mkdir -p <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-bsp/fsbl/files
## From 2021.1 onwards
$ mkdir -p <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-bsp/embeddedsw/ 
2. Copy patch files to <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-bsp/fsbl/files as
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$ cp 0001-FSBL.patch <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-bsp/fsbl/files
## From 2021.1 onwards 
$ cp 0001-FSBL.patch <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-bsp/embeddedsw/files
Note that patches should be generated based on the embeddedsw GIT repo which contains FSBL as the patches require the path into the repo to apply correctly.

3. Create a fsbl_%.bbappend file and add below content
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$ vim <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-bsp/fsbl/fsbl_%.bbappend
## From 2021.1 onwards
$ vim <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-bsp/embeddedsw/fsbl-firmware_%.bbappend

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# Patch for FSBL
# Note: do_configure_prepend task section is required only for 2017.1 release
# Refer https://github.com/Xilinx/meta-xilinx-tools/blob/rel-v2017.2/classes/xsctbase.bbclass#L29-L35
 
do_configure_prepend() {
    if [ -d "${S}/patches" ]; then
       rm -rf ${S}/patches
    fi
 
    if [ -d "${S}/.pc" ]; then
       rm -rf ${S}/.pc
    fi
}
 
SRC_URI_append = " \
        file://0001-FSBL.patch \
        "
 
FILESEXTRAPATHS_prepend := "${THISDIR}/files:"
 
#Add debug for FSBL(optional)
XSCTH_BUILD_DEBUG = "1"
 
#Enable appropriate FSBL debug or compiler flags
YAML_COMPILER_FLAGS_append = " -DXPS_BOARD_ZCU102"
 
# Note: This is not required if you are using Yocto
# CAUTION!: EXTERNALXSCTSRC and EXTERNALXSCTSRC_BUILD is required only for 2018.2 and below petalinux releases
EXTERNALXSCTSRC = ""
EXTERNALXSCTSRC_BUILD = ""
4. Remove the <plnx-proj-root>/components/plnx_workspace and clean your project workspace before rebuilding FSBL components
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$ petalinux-build -x mrproper

#Note: In v2018.1 PetaLinux release onwards "petalinux-build -x mrproper" command will remove <plnx-proj-root>/components/plnx_workspace directory
$ rm -rf <plnx-proj-root>/components/plnx_workspace
5. Rebuilding FSBL components
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$ petalinux-build -c bootloader

How to Patch the PMU Firmware in a PetaLinux Project


Note: This method can't be used for v2016.4 PetaLinux Projects. PetaLinux tools use externalsrc methodology to fetch the source code from XSDK. Yocto does not allow patching in this externalsrc mechanism. Hence this method can't be used in Yocto.

1. Create a pmu/pmu-firmware and files directory in meta-user layer as
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$ mkdir -p <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-bsp/pmu/files

#For v2018.1 release onwards
$ mkdir -p <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-bsp/pmu-firmware/files
2. Copy patch files to <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-bsp/pmu/files as
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$ cp 0001-PMUFW.patch <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-bsp/pmu/files

#For v2018.1 release onwards
$ cp 0001-PMUFW.patch <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-bsp/pmu-firmware/files
3. Create a pmu-firmware_%.bbappend file and add below content
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$ vim <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-bsp/pmu/pmu-firmware_%.bbappend

#For v2018.1 or later PetaLinux releases only
$ vim <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-bsp/pmu-firmware/pmu-firmware_%.bbappend


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# Patch for PMUFW
# Note: do_configure_prepend task section is required only for 2017.1 release
# Refer https://github.com/Xilinx/meta-xilinx-tools/blob/rel-v2017.2/classes/xsctbase.bbclass#L29-L35
 
do_configure_prepend() {
    if [ -d "${S}/patches" ]; then
       rm -rf ${S}/patches
    fi
 
    if [ -d "${S}/.pc" ]; then
       rm -rf ${S}/.pc
    fi
}
 
SRC_URI_append = " \
        file://0001-PMUFW.patch \
        "
 
FILESEXTRAPATHS_prepend := "${THISDIR}/files:"

# Enable appropriate PMUFW debug or compiler flags
YAML_COMPILER_FLAGS_append = " -DENABLE_EM"
 
# Note: This is not required if you are using Yocto
# CAUTION!: EXTERNALXSCTSRC and EXTERNALXSCTSRC_BUILD is required only for 2018.2 and below petalinux releases
EXTERNALXSCTSRC = ""
EXTERNALXSCTSRC_BUILD = ""

4. Remove the <plnx-proj-root>/components/plnx_workspace and clean your project workspace before rebuilding PMUFW components
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$ petalinux-build -x mrproper

#Note: In v2018.1 or later PetaLinux release "petalinux-build -x mrproper" command will remove <plnx-proj-root>/components/plnx_workspace directory
$ rm -rf <plnx-proj-root>/components/plnx_workspace
5. Rebuilding PMUFW components
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$ petalinux-build -c pmufw


...

By pass PMUFW debug logs on different UART console:
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YAML_SERIAL_CONSOLE_STDIN_forcevariable = "psu_uart_1"
YAML_SERIAL_CONSOLE_STDOUT_forcevariable = "psu_uart_1"
Remove the <plnx-proj-root>/components/plnx_workspace and clean you project workspace before rebuilding FSBL or PMUFW components
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$ petalinux-build -x mrproper

#Note: In v2018.1 or later PetaLinux release "petalinux-build -x mrproper" command will remove <plnx-proj-root>/components/plnx_workspace directory
$ rm -rf <plnx-proj-root>/components/plnx_workspace
$ petalinux-build

How to Update psu_init Files in PetaLinux Project

Info

Note: PSU_INIT files are generated based on HDF or XSA parsing, Hence these files can't be patched on top of embedded_sw repo using Yocto SRC_URI variable. Alternatively we can update these files by editing <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/hw-description/psu_init.c and copy to FSBL build workspace during do_compile_prepend bitbake task.


1. Modify <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/hw-description/psu_init.c file as per your requirement 

2. Create a FSBL bbappend file under <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-bsp/embeddedsw/fsbl-firmware_%.bbappend and add below content to update psu_init.c changes to FSBL

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# For 2018.2 and below versions
do_compile_prepend(){
   install -m 0644 ${TOPDIR}/../project-spec/hw-description/psu_init.c ${TOPDIR}/../components/plnx_workspace/fsbl/fsbl_hwproj/psu_init.c
}

# For 2018.3 and later versions we removed FSBL and PMUFW external workspace from <plnx-proj-root>/components/plnx_workspace directory
# to align Yocto patching mechanism. Hence we are copying the files to build workspace(${B})
# https://github.com/Xilinx/meta-xilinx-tools/blob/rel-v2018.3/classes/xsctbase.bbclass#L14
do_compile_prepend(){
   install -m 0644 ${TOPDIR}/../project-spec/hw-description/psu_init.c ${B}/fsbl/psu_init.c
}

How to Add Pre-built Libraries in PetaLinux or Yocto Projects


1. Create an application/recipe and copy prebuilt library and header files with the following commands. Assuming prebuilt library name is libcpsample.so.1.0.1.    

In

Petalinux

PetaLinux Flow:

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$ petalinux-create -t apps --template install --name libcpsample --enable
$ cp libcpsample.so.1.0.1 <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-apps/libcpsample/files
$ cp cpsample.h <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-apps/libcpsample/files
(or) You can use the below single command to achieve the above functionality.
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$ petalinux-create -t apps --template install --name libcpsample --enable --srcuri "<path-to-dir>/libcpsample.so.1.0.1 <path-to-dir>/cpsample.h>"

In Yocto Flow:

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$ mkdir -p <layer-path>/recipes-apps/libcpsample/files
$ touch <layer-path>/recipes-apps/libcpsample/libcpsample.bb
$ cp libcpsample.so.1.0.1 <layer-path>/recipes-apps/libcpsample/files
$ cp cpsample.h <layer-path>/recipes-apps/libcpsample/files


...


1. Create a library using petalinux PetaLinux tools
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$ petlainux-create -t apps --template c --name libsample --enable
2. Modify the libsample.bb recipe file <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-apps/libsample/libsample.bb as
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#
# This file is the libsample recipe.
#
 
SUMMARY = "Simple libsample application"
SECTION = "libs"
LICENSE = "MIT"
LIC_FILES_CHKSUM = "file://${COMMON_LICENSE_DIR}/MIT;md5=0835ade698e0bcf8506ecda2f7b4f302"
 
FILESEXTRAPATHS_prepend := "${THISDIR}/files:"
 
SRC_URI = " \
          file://sample.c \
          file://sample.h \
          file://Makefile \
         "
 
S = "${WORKDIR}"
 
PACKAGE_ARCH = "${MACHINE_ARCH}"
PROVIDES = "sample"
TARGET_CC_ARCH += "${LDFLAGS}"
 
do_install() {
    install -d ${D}${libdir}
    install -d ${D}${includedir}
    oe_libinstall -so libsample ${D}${libdir}
    # This is optional and depends if you have any headers to copied along with libraries
    # This example includes sample.h to to copied to <TARGET_ROOTFS>/usr/lib/SAMPLE/sample.h
    install -d -m 0655 ${D}${includedir}/SAMPLE
    install -m 0644 ${S}/*.h ${D}${includedir}/SAMPLE/
}
 
FILES_${PN} = "${libdir}/*.so.* ${includedir}/*"
FILES_${PN}-dev = "${libdir}/*.so"
3. Modify the <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-apps/libsample/files/Makefile generated from petalinux PetaLinux tools as
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APP = sample
 
LIBSOURCES=*.c
OUTS = *.o
NAME := sample
MAJOR = 1.0
MINOR = 1
VERSION = $(MAJOR).$(MINOR)
 
all: lib$(NAME).so
lib$(NAME).so.$(VERSION): $(OUTS)
    $(CC) $(LDFLAGS) $(OUTS) -shared -Wl,-soname,lib$(NAME).so.$(MAJOR) -o lib$(NAME).so.$(VERSION)
 
lib$(NAME).so: lib$(NAME).so.$(VERSION)
    rm -f lib$(NAME).so.$(MAJOR) lib$(NAME).so
    ln -s lib$(NAME).so.$(VERSION) lib$(NAME).so.$(MAJOR)
    ln -s lib$(NAME).so.$(MAJOR) lib$(NAME).so
 
%.o: %.c
    $(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c -fPIC $(LIBSOURCES)
 
clean:
    rm -rf *.o *.so *.so.*
4. Build the library recipe
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$ petalinux-build -c libsample

Creating Apps(which uses libraries) in PetaLinux Project


1. Create a library using petalinux PetaLinux tools
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$ petlainux-create -t apps --template c --name sampleapp --enable
2. Modify the sampleapp.bb recipe file <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-apps/sampleapp/sampleapp.bb as
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#
# This file is the sampleapp recipe.
#
 
SUMMARY = "Simple sampleapp application"
SECTION = "PETALINUX/apps"
LICENSE = "MIT"
LIC_FILES_CHKSUM = "file://${COMMON_LICENSE_DIR}/MIT;md5=0835ade698e0bcf8506ecda2f7b4f302"
 
FILESEXTRAPATHS_prepend := "${THISDIR}/files:"
 
SRC_URI = " \
          file://sampleapp.c \
         "
 
S = "${WORKDIR}"
 
DEPENDS += " libsample"
 
#This uses libsample.so.1.0.1 (-lsample)
do_compile() {
    ${CC} ${CFLAGS} ${LDFLAGS} -o sampleapp sampleapp.c -lsample
}
 
do_install() {
    install -d ${D}${bindir}
    install -d -m 0755 sampleapp ${D}${bindir}
}
 
FILES_${PN} += "sampleapp"
3. Modify the <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-apps/libsample/files/sampleapp.c generated from petalinux PetaLinux tools as
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#include <stdio.h>
#include <SAMPLE/sample.h>  // From above libs <TARGET_ROOTFS>/usr/lib/SAMPLE/sample.h
 
int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
    printf("Hello World!\n");
    sample_hello();
    return 0;
}
4. Build the apps recipe
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$ petalinux-build -c sampleapp

How to Auto Run Application at Startup

1. Create a library using petalinux PetaLinux tools

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$ petalinux-create -t apps --template install -n myapp-init --enable

2. Edit the file <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-apps/myapp-init/myappinit.bb. The file should look like the following:

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#this file is the myapp-init recipe.
#

SUMMARY = "Simple myapp-init application"
SECTION = "PETALINUX/apps"
LICENSE = "MIT"

LIC_FILES_CHKSUM = "file://${COMMON_LICENSE_DIR}/MIT;md5=0835ade698e0bcf8506ecda2f7b4f302"

SRC_URI = "file://myapp-init \
"

S = "${WORKDIR}"
FILESEXTRAPATHS_prepend := "${THISDIR}/files:"

inherit update-rc.d
INITSCRIPT_NAME = "myapp-init"
INITSCRIPT_PARAMS = "start 99 S ."

do_install() {
	install -d ${D}${sysconfdir}/init.d
	install -m 0755 ${S}/myapp-init ${D}${sysconfdir}/init.d/myapp-init
}
FILES_${PN} += "${sysconfdir}/*"

3. To run myapp as daemon, edit the file <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-apps/myapp-init/files/myapp-init.

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#!/bin/sh
DAEMON=/usr/bin/myapp-init
start ()
{
        echo " Starting myapp-init"
        start-stop-daemon -S -o --background -x $DAEMON
}
stop ()
{
        echo " Stoping myapp-init"
        start-stop-daemon -K -x $DAEMON
}
restart()
{
        stop
        start
}

[ -e $DAEMON ] || exit 1

        case "$1" in
                start)
                        start; ;;
                stop)
                        stop; ;;
                restart)
                        restart; ;;
                *)
                        echo "Usage: $0 {start|stop|restart}"
                        exit 1
        esac
exit $?

4. Build the project

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petalinux-build

How to Auto Mount SD card in Yocto Recipes


1. Create a base-files directory in meta-user layer as
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$ mkdir -p <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-core/base-files
2. Create a base-files_%.bbappend file and add below content
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$ vim <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-core/base-files/base-files_%.bbappend
 
#base-files_%.bbappend content
 
dirs755 += "/media/card"
 
do_install_append() {
    sed -i '/mmcblk0p1/s/^#//g' ${D}${sysconfdir}/fstab
}
3. Rebuild rootfs
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$ petalinux-build

How to Configure a Second Ethernet Interface(eth1) to Get the IP Address from DHCP in Yocto Recipes

Method 1: Append auto eth1 to existing interfaces file


1. Create a init-ifupdown directory in meta-user layer as
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$ mkdir -p <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-core/init-ifupdown/
2. Create a init_ifupdown_%.bbappend file and add below content
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$ vim <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-core/init-ifupdown/init-ifupdown_%.bbappend
 
# init-ifupdown_%.bbappend content
 
do_install_append() {
    sed -i '/iface eth0 inet dhcp/ a auto eth1' ${D}${sysconfdir}/network/interfaces
}
3. Rebuild rootfs
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$ petalinux-build

Method 2: Use your own interfaces file


1. Create a init-ifupdown directory in meta-user layer as
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$ mkdir -p <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-core/init-ifupdown/files
2. Create your own network interface file as show below
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$ vim <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-core/init-ifupdown/files/myinterfaces
 
# myinterfaces content
 
# /etc/network/interfaces -- configuration file for ifup(8), ifdown(8)
 
# The loopback interface
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
 
# Wireless interfaces
iface wlan0 inet dhcp
    wireless_mode managed
    wireless_essid any
    wpa-driver wext
    wpa-conf /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
 
iface atml0 inet dhcp
 
# Wired or wireless interfaces
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp
 
# Add auto config for eth1
auto eth1
iface eth1 inet dhcp
 
# Ethernet/RNDIS gadget (g_ether)
# ... or on host side, usbnet and random hwaddr
iface usb0 inet static
    address 192.168.7.2
    netmask 255.255.255.0
    network 192.168.7.0
    gateway 192.168.7.1
 
# Bluetooth networking
iface bnep0 inet dhcp
3. Create a init_ifupdown_%.bbappend file and add below content
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$ vim <plnx-proj-root>/project-spec/meta-user/recipes-core/init-ifupdown/init-ifupdown_%.bbappend
 
# init-ifupdown_%.bbappend content
 
SRC_URI += " \
        file://myinterfaces \
        "
 
FILESEXTRAPATHS_prepend := "${THISDIR}/files:"
 
# Overwrite interface file with myinterface file in rootfs
do_install_append() {
     install -m 0644 ${WORKDIR}/myinterfaces ${D}${sysconfdir}/network/interfaces
}
4. Rebuild rootfs
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$ petalinux-build


...